It was shown that during the early phase of the event energetic particle penetration into the magnetosphere took place in the regions on the magnetopause where the magnetospheric and interplanetary magnetic field vectors are parallel. Calculations in terms of A magnetospheric magnetic field model and comparison with SuperDARN images support the link between high-latitude solar energetic particle precipitations and the region at the magnetopause where the magnetospheric field is coupled with northward IMF, allowing solar particles entrance into the magnetosphere and access to the northern polar cap. Variations of the large-scale magnetospheric currents in accordance with both, interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind changes, affect the particle transport and distribution inside the magnetosphere Harnett, ; Rodriguez, Due to large Larmor radius solar particles can move non-adiabatically in the regions where the field lines are highly curved. In that way particles can shift from the open to closed field lines and become trapped by geomagnetic field Richard et al.
Messages from Space - Magnetosphere & Solar Protons: Introduction
Solar proton data from PoSAT Introduction The Earth is continuously bombarded with radiation, both optical radiation as light, and ionising radiation such as gamma rays, X-rays and charged particles. The sources of these different types of radiation are many and varied - here we will discuss the origin and nature of ionising radiation that is incident on the Earth. Beyond the Earth's atmosphere, in the magnetosphere of the Earth, there is much more ionising radiation than at the Earth's surface, and this has direct implications for the operation of satellites and Earth-orbiting space craft. The energy deposited by such radiation in spacecraft materials, particularly electronic materials such as integrated circuits, can cause significant damage. The X-rays and gamma rays, which nearly all emanate from the Sun, do not cause a significant damage to satellites, however this is not the case for the charged particles. The particles encountered in space are generally known as cosmic-rays.